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真人游戏|In a recent op-ed in The Financial Times, Larry Summers criticized the U.S. for not backing the creation of a new China-led international bank that would finance major infrastructure projects across the Asia Pacific region; the former U.S. secretary of treasury decried it a “failure of strategy and tactics” and called for “a comprehensive review of the U.S. approach to global economics.”美国前财政部长拉里o萨默斯最近在英国《金融时报》公开发表评论,抨击美国政府不应冷漠对待亚投行,这家由中国联合发动的新国际银行将为亚太地区的最重要基础设施项目获取资金。萨默斯指出,美国政府犯有了一场“战略和战术上的告终”,并敦促其“全面评估对全球经济该采行的姿态”。Summers’ pointed words followed those of another Clinton Administration alumnus. Madeleine Albright, America’s former top diplomat, who late last month said the United States had “screwed up” in its unsuccessful efforts to dissuade other countries from supporting the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.无独有偶,就在萨默斯措辞锐利地谴责美国政府前不久,另一位克林顿时期的政府要员、前国务卿奥尔布赖特上个月也抨击了奥巴马政府。

她回应,美国政府酬劳那么大力气想要把其他国家拦阻在亚投行之外,最后却把事情“搞得一团糟”。Both Summers’ and Albright’s remarks came as diplomats and business executives from Asia and Europe have embraced the bank. Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, South Korea and Australia, are among more than 40 nations who have brushed aside the White House’s concerns over the intentions of the bank and whether it will follow “high quality, time-tested standards.” China will provide much of the AIIB’s initial $100 billion in funding. The bank is expected to be up and running by the end of this year, helping finance transport, water, energy and other infrastructure projects.这边萨默斯和奥尔布赖特的责备大大,那边亚洲和欧洲的外交官和企业高管早已开始对亚投行大力断然拒绝。



Going forward, the U.S. and Japan, which also has withheld support, may well seek to save face and work with the bank. Such a move will be good for all parties, but for the bank to be successful, leaders should bear a few measures in mind:今后,美国很有可能得去找机会与亚投行合作,挽救点颜面,跟美国一样并未参予亚投行的日本也一样。若真能如此,将对各方都不利。然而,要想要亚投行确实顺利,领导人还应当考虑到以下几个问题:With the bank’s focus on infrastructure development instead of on the broader goal of poverty reduction, it is important that policies and procedures be put in place to ensure that infrastructure investments do not lead to the unintended impoverishment of thousands of people or significant harm to the surrounding environment.鉴于亚投行的重点是基础设施研发,而不是为了避免贫穷这样更加宏远的目标,那么有一点很最重要,就是涉及政策和程序都要实施做到,保证基础设施投资会造成大批民众忽然陷于贫穷,也要防止对周边环境导致相当严重污染。Given their size and scope, major infrastructure projects such as hydroelectric power plants and road networks can lead to forced resettlement of communities and the loss of traditional livelihoods, such as in agriculture and fishing. I saw this during my own visits to a range of power and transport projects in my oversight role from early 2007 to the end of 2010 on the Board of Directors of the Asian Development Bank.亚投行的资金规模可观,覆盖范围也很广,水电站和公路等大型基础设施项目有可能被迫很真人游戏多社区的原住民背井离乡,失去为生、捕捞等传统经商手段。

2007年初到2010年底,我在亚洲开发银行任职期间实地考察了一些电力和交通运输项目,就曾遇上过此类情况。Strong social and environmental safeguards are needed to make sure development projects are done in a sustainable manner. Views and input from affected communities should be incorporated in a meaningful way from the earliest stages of project design. Otherwise, poorly designed projects can contribute to social and environmental harm, costs overruns for borrowers and ultimately unrest and delayed or cancelled projects.要保证项目的可持续研发,就必须采行强有力的社会保障措施和环境保护手段。设计项目早期就应当充分考虑当地涉及社区的意见,而且理应居民代表参予。否则,如果项目设计有问题,有可能给当地社会和环境造成危害,借款方的成本将延误,最后有可能造成社会动荡不安、项目延后甚至中止。

The new bank should move quickly to prove skeptics wrong. It has the chance, for example, to demonstrate that it can be more effective than the World Bank and other regional development banks in financing infrastructure while addressing legitimate community concerns about relocation and compensation for any loss of housing or income.亚投行应该很快行动起来,证明怀疑论者的观点是错的。比如说,它可以用实际行动证明,在资助基础设施建设方面,亚投行的融资效率比世界银行和其他地区性研发银行更高;而在应付社区迁往时明确提出的合理表达意见、获取适当房屋或收益补偿方面,亚投行也有能力处理慎重。

Recently, the World Bank admitted to “serious shortcomings in the implementation of its resettlement policies,” adding that it plans to fix its problems with a “plan that will improve the oversight and management of resettlement practices to ensure better protection of people and businesses affected by bank-funded projects.”最近,世界银行否认“在工程移民移往政策方面不存在相当严重缺失”,同时宣告将解决问题这个问题,明确途径是制定方案,提高移民移往过程中的监督和管理,保证不受项目影响的民众和企业获得适当决定。The new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has the chance to develop strong, new and effective accountability mechanisms all shareholders would support. A strong independent evaluations department not beholden to any single shareholder must be part of that. Mechanisms to review and ensure compliance with the bank’s own rules are also critical.新的正式成立的亚投行还可以创建强劲有效地的新型问责机制,并谋求所有股东反对。



As Summers noted, it is time for the US to wake up to a new economic era. Strengthened engagement with Asia and all its major financial institutions must be part of that.正如萨默斯所说,美国应当精神状态地认识到,新的经济时代早已到来,应当积极参与亚洲事务,与亚洲所有最重要的金融机构多做事也是其中的一部分。。